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Program and abstracts
The 3rd International Workshop
“Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics”
14-16 April, 2016
al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Almaty, Kazakhstan
Organizers
al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Physical-Technical Faculty
Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics
УДК:
ББК:
Editors
Takibayev N.Zh., Kurmangaliyeva V .O., Duisebai A.D.
The 3rd International Workshop “Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics”
al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan, April 1416, 2016. – Almaty: Kazakh University, 2016 – 48 p.
ISBN
УДК:
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ISBN
2016
© al-Farabi Kazakh National University,
III INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP
“NUCLEAR PHYSICS AND ASTROPHYSICS”
APRIL 14-16, 2016, Almaty, Kazakhstan
al-Farabi Kazakh National University
Physical-Technical Faculty, The Chair of Theoretical and
Nuclear Physics,
Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics
The International Workshop “Nuclear Physics and
Astrophysics”, organized by the Chair of Theoretical and Nuclear
Physics, Physical-Technical Faculty and the Institute for
Experimental and Theoretical Physics of the al-Farabi Kazakh
National University will take place on April 14 – 16, 2016 at the
Physical-Technical Faculty of the al-Farabi Kazakh National
University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Co-organizers: Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Republic
of Kazakhstan, National Center for Space Research and
Technologies, Fesenkov’ Astrophysical Institute, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Workshop Language - English. All reports, abstracts and
papers accepted for publication are to be in English. The papers for
publication in the journal abroad will be peer reviewed.
International Organizing committee: Bum-Hoon Lee
(Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Republic of Korea),
Kiyoshi Kato (Hokkaido University, Japan), Shinsho Oryu (Tokyo
University of Science, Japan), Roman Kezerashvili (New-York City
University, USA), V.S. Vasilevsky (Bogolyubov Institute for
Theoretical Physics, Ukraine), R. Ruffini (ICRANET Sapiensa,
University of Roma, Italy), K. Spitaleri (University of Catania,
Italy), Chingis Omarov (National Center of Space Researches and
Technologies; Fesenkov’ Astrophysical Institute, Almaty,
Kazakhstan), S. Sakhiev (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty,
Kazakhstan), V.N.Melnikov (Russia, MSU, RUDN), T. S.
Ramazanov, T.A. Kozhamkulov, A.E. Davletov, M.E.Abishev,
N.Takibayev (al-Farabi KazNU, Almaty, Kazakhstan).
Local Organizing committee: Nurgali Zh. Takibayev
(chair) E-mail: takibayev@gmail.com, V. Kurmangaliyeva (scientific
secretary), M.E. Abishev, B. Abdykadyrov, K. Boshkayev, A.
Duisebai, Zh. Omar (al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty,
Kazakhstan)
Please, send to the scientific secretary of the Organizing
committee (E-mail: venera_baggi@mail.ru) the names of the authors,
titles and abstracts of your talks (not more than 1 page for one
report). The deadline for abstract submission is extended up to
March 24, 2016.
The International Workshop will cover areas like nuclear
cluster physics, few-body systems, light nuclei and nuclear reactions
in astrophysics, physics of neutron stars and white dwarfs, galaxies
and other aspects of modern problems of nuclear physics and
astrophysics.
Venue: Conference room – room № 330, Physical-Technical
Faculty, al-Farabi KazNU, av. al-Farabi 71, Almaty
Program of III International Workshop “Nuclear Physics and
Astrophysics”
Date: 14 April 2016
Time table
09:00 – 09:30 Registration of participants.
09:30 – 09:45 Opening ceremony
Section 1. Nuclear Physics (Theory)
09:50 – 10:20 V.S. Vasilevsky, K. Katō, et al; “Formation and
decay of resonance states in 9Be and 9B nuclei.
Microscopic three-cluster model investigations”
10:20 – 10:50 R. Otani, M. Iwasaki, M. Nakao, and M. Ito;
“Cluster structures in unbound states of 19Ne”
10:50 – 11:20 K. Kato, M. Odsuren, et al.; “Photodisintegration and
Virtual State in the Complex Scaling Method”
11:20 – 11: 40 Coffee-break
Section 2. Nuclear Physics (Experiments)
11:40 – 12:10 S. Yamaki, K. Morimoto, D. Kaji, et al; "Current
status of superheavy element search in the GARIS-II
facility at RIKEN“
12:10 – 12: 40 Daiki Nishimura, K. Aoki, T. Nagai, et al, “Half life
measurement of isomeric state in 25Si”
12:40 – 14:00 Break for Lunch
Section 3. Nuclear Astrophysics
14:00 – 14:30 Claudio Spitaleri; “The puzzle of electron screening
in Nuclear Astrophysics:
a nuclear solution?”
14:30 – 15:00 V. S. Vasilevsky, N. Zh. Takibayev, A. D. Duisenbay;
“Influence of the cluster polarization on spectrum
and reactions in mirror 8Li and 8B nuclei”
15:00 – 15:30 Nurgali Takibayev; “Forced Reverse Reactions in the
Neutron Star Matter”
15:30 – 16:00 Coffee-break
Section 4. Nuclear Physics (experiments)
16:00 – 16:20 N.Burtebayev, Zh.K.Kerimkulov, D.К.Alimov, et al;
“Elastic scattring of 3Не
ions on 14N at
energies near the coulomb barrier”
16:20 – 16:40 Marzhan Nassurlla, N. Burtebayev, et al; “The
process of scattering of 13C ions on 12C nuclei at
energies close to the Coulomb barrier”
16:40 – 17: 00 Daniyar Janseitov, N. Burtebayev, et al; “Elastic
scattering of 3He ions from 13C nuclei in optical and
folding models”
Program of III International Workshop “Nuclear Physics and
Astrophysics”
Date: 15 April
Time table
Section 5. Astrophysics
09:00 – 09:30 Ernazar Abdikamalov, (Nazarbayev University);
“Probing Core-Collapse Supernova Central Engine
with Gravitational Waves”
09:30 – 10:00 Daniele Malafarina, (Nazarbayev University);
“Bounces and exotic compact objects from
gravitational collapse; Analytical insights into the
strong field regime”
10:00 – 10:10 N. Burtebayev1, Y. Mukhamejanov1 “Elastic and
inelastic 11B+d scattering”
10:10 – 10:20 N. Burtebayev1, N.V. Glushchenko “Analysis of
elastic and inelastic scattering of 3He ions on 9Be
nuclei at energy 60 MeV”
10:20 – 11:00 Coffee-break
Section 6. Nuclear Physics (Theory)
11:00 – 11:30 P. Krasovitsky, F. Pen’kov (INP); “Phase shifts of
molecular resonance transparence”
11:30 – 11:50 Zhusupov M.A., Ibraeva E.T., Kabatayeva R.S.;
“Inelastic Proton Scattering on the Ground and
Excited States of 9Be Nucleus in the Framework of
the Diffraction Multiple Scattering Theory”
11:50 – 12:20 M. Abishev (al-Farabi KazNU); “On cyclic reactions
under thermal neutrons flux”
12:20 – 13:40 Break for Lunch
Section 7. Physics and Astropysics
13:40 – 14:00 V.N.Melnikov (Russia, MSU, RUDN) to be
announced
14:00 – 14:10 S.Kumekov “The dynamics of electron-hole plasma
in the semiconductor excited by high power light
pulses”
14:10 – 14:20 S.Kunakov “To the theory of electrostatic probe in
14:20 – 14:30
14:30 – 14:40
14:40 – 14:50
14:50 – 15:00
15:00 – 18:00
dusty plasma, generated by a volume source of
fission fragments”
F.Sagimbaeva “Application of sum coincidence
corrections for study of reaction rate of residual
nuclei in fission and spallation”
B.Baimurzinova “Analyzing power of Inverse
Diproton Photodisintegration at Intermediate
Energies”
V. Dzhunushaliev, Makhmudov A., Urasalina A.;
“Phantom compact and extended objects
in
astrophysics”
Z.Zh.Zhanabaev “Fractal - geometric description of
the "distance - speed" chart for antigravitating
galaxies”
Excursions along Esentai river, The region of
Theaters and Sport Palaces, Visiting Kasteev
museum
Program of III International Workshop “Nuclear Physics
and Astrophysics”
Date: 16 April
Time table
Section 8 Round-Table (Part 1)
09:30 – 10:00 M. Abishev (al-Farabi KazNU), S. Kumekov
(KazNTU), A. Davletov,
K. Kato (Hokkaido University), et al.
Skype-section (Part 1)
10:00 – 10:40 H. Quevedo (National Autonomous University of
Mexico and University of Rome) “Multipole
structure of compact objects”
10:40 – 11:00 K. Boshkayev (al-Farabi, KazNU) “Observational
and theoretical constraints on the mass-radius
relations of neutron stars”
Section 8 Continuation of Round-Table
(Part 2):
11:00 – 12:00 Perspectives and new collaborations (M. Abishev,
N. Takibayev, K. Kato, et al)
Continuation of Skype-section (Part 2):
12:00 – 12:30 Yuliya Lashko, G. Fillipov, et al., “Dynamics of two-
cluster systems in phase space”
12:30 – 12: 45 Roman Kezerashvili (University of New York
City,USA), “Lightest Kaonic Nuclear Clusters”
12:45 – 13:00 Closing of III International Workshop “Nuclear
Physics and Astrophysics”
Formation and decay of resonance states in 9Be and 9B nuclei.
Microscopic three-cluster model investigations
V. S. Vasilevsky1, K. Katō2, N. Zh. Takibayev3
1
Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine
Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido
University, Sapporo, Japan
3
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2
Resonance state is one of the challenging problems for
theoretical and nuclear physics. There are common features of
resonance states, observed in few- or many-channel systems.
However, there are some specific features connected with the way of
excitation or generation of resonance states and also in different way
of resonance state decay in nuclear systems. Special attention is
attracted by resonance states formed by three interacting clusters, i.e.
resonance states embedded in three-cluster continuum. Such
resonance states are repeatedly observed in nuclei with welldetermined three-cluster structure. These nuclei have dominant threecluster configuration, it means that bound states and many resonance
states are lying bellow and above, respectively, threshold of threecluster continuum. As an example of such nuclei, we can mention 5H,
6
He, 6Be, 9Be and 9B and many others.
The aim of the present report is to study low-energy spectrum of
mirror nuclei 9Be and 9B. Investigation of low-lying states in 9Be is
interesting for astrophysical applications and, in particular, for
problem of synthesis and abundance of light nuclei in the Universe.
We microscopic method, which employs hyperspherical harmonics
to numerate channels of three-cluster continuum and was formulated
in [1], allow us to determine energy and width of a resonance state,
reveal the dominant decay channels, and shed more light on nature of
resonance state by analyzing its wave functions.
Results, presented in this report, are obtained with the modified
version of the Hasegawa-Nagata potential, which is often used in
calculation of two- and three-cluster structure of light nuclei. It is
shown the three-cluster model with such potential reproduces fairly
good spectrum of resonance states in both nuclei. By calculating and
comparing spectrum of excited states in mirror nuclei 9Be and 9B, we
are able to determine effects of the Coulomb interaction. It is shown
that energy and width of resonance state in 9B is larger than
corresponding parameters in its counterpart in 9Be. We found three
groups of resonance states in these nuclei. They reveal small,
medium and strong effects of the Coulomb interaction. Special
attention is paid to the controversial ½+ states in 9Be and 9B. It is
show that within our model, these states are relatively wide
resonance. These states are located not far from the three-cluster
threshold and they prefer to decay on 5He (5Li) and alpha particle in
the channel with zero orbital momentum. There is Coulomb barrier
in this channel which determines energy and width of the ½+
resonance states. We also analyze all resonance states in 9Be in order
to find the Hoyle-analogue state. We suggested that the 5/2resonance state can be considered as the Hoyle-analogue state as this
is very narrow resonance state. It lives long enough and may
transform to the 3/2- ground state of 9Be by emitting the quadrupole
gamma quanta. This reaction, which involves the triple collision of
two alpha particles and neutron and subsequent radiation of gamma
quanta, can be considered as an additional way for synthesis of 9Be
nuclei.
Reference:
[1] V. Vasilevsky, A.V. Nesterov, F. Arickx, J. Broeckhove,
Algebraic model for scattering in three-s-cluster systems. I.
Theoretical background. Phys. Rev. C, 63, 034606, 2001.
Cluster structures in unbound states of 19Ne
R. Otani, M. Iwasaki, M. Nakao, and M. Ito
Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Kansai University, 3-335; Yamatecho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680, Japan.
Cluster structures are well known to appear in the excited states
of light nuclear systems. A typical example can be seen in 20Ne. The
α + 16O cluster model is successful in reproducing the ground and
excited rotational band structures in 20Ne [1]. In 19F, which is one
proton deficient system of 20Ne, the formation of the α + 15N cluster
structures are deeply analyzed [2; 3]. On the contrary, the α + 15O
cluster structure, corresponding to the neutron deficient system of
20
Ne, still remains unclear although the pioneering works can be seen
in Refs. [2; 3]. The unbound continuum states of this cluster structure
is expected to be important in the radiative capture reaction of 15O(α,
γ)19Ne, which plays the crucial role in the advanced stage of the
Hydrogen burning [4].
In the present study, we investigate the cluster structure in 19Ne
by applying the microscopic cluster model, the generalized twocenter cluster model (GTCM) [5], which can handle the chemicalbonding structure in general two-center nuclear systems. This model
has been applied to Be isotopes, and it has been successful in
describing the structure and reaction problems [5]. We have solved
the coupled-channels equations of (3He + 15O) + (α + 16O) in the
framework of GTCM. Above the α decay threshold, the absorbing
boundary condition (ABC) [6] is applied to identify the resonant
levels. The GTCM calculation nicely reproduce the qualitative
feature of the low-lying bound levels in 19Ne. Furthermore, the
GTCM calculation under the ABC predicts the resonant levels above
the α threshold. We have also calculated the resonant level by
employing the α + 15O potential model [7], and their results are
compared to those of the microscopic GTCM calculation.
In the radiative capture reaction of 15O(α, γ)19Ne at the
astrophysical energy region, the most crucial resonance is known to
arise through the Jπ = 3/2+ resonant level at 504 keV with
respect to the α + 15O threshold (Ex = 4.03 MeV). According to
the previous studies on the mirror system of 19F [2; 3], any cluster
model calculations cannot reproduce the respective 3=2+ state, which
exists just below the α threshold. The analyses in Ref. [4] have
pointed out that the intrinsic structure of the resonance at 504 keV in
Ne is not the α + 15O cluster structure but the five particle - two
hole (5p - 2h) shell-model configuration with the 14Og:s: core.
However, there is no shell model calculation which takes into
account the 5p-2h configurations. The 5p-2h configuration has a
large overlap with the shell model limit of the 5He + 14O
configuration. Therefore, the coupling of 5He + 14O on the Jπ = 3/2+
state is essential in the cluster model approach. In the present study,
we have performed the extended coupled-channels calculation of
(3He + 16O) + (α + 15O) + (5He + 14O) and found that a new 3/2+
level appears around the α threshold. This level is generated by the
coupling of the 5He + 14O configuration. The details of the present
calculation will be reported.
19
References:
[1] Andra T. Kruppa, and K. Kato, Prog. Theor. Phys. 84 (1990)
1145, and references therein.
[2] T. Sakuda and F. Nemoto, Prog. Theor. Phys. 62 (1979) 1274.
[3] P. Descouvemont and D. Baye, Nucl. Phys. A463, 629,
(1986).
[4] Z. Q. Mao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 (1995) 3760, and
references therein.
[5] M. Ito and K. Ikeda, Rep. Prog. Phys. 77 (2014) 096301.
[6] M. Ito and K. Yabana, Prog. Theor. Phys. 113 (2005) 1047.
[7] R. Otani et al., Phys. Rev. C 90 (2014) 034316.
Photodisintegration and Virtual State in the Complex Scaling
Method
K. Kato1, M. Odsuren1, Y. Kikuchi1, T. Myo1, V. S. Vasilevsky2
and N. Takibayev3
1
Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science,
Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan
2
Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine
3
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
It is a longstanding problem to determine its resonance energy
and width of the first excited 1/2+ state of 9Be, which is closely
connected with the problem to clarify whether it is a resonant state or
not. Recently, we studied the 1/2+ state of 9Be and the
photodisintegration cross section (PDXS) applying the complex
scaling method (CSM) to the α+α+n three-cluster model. The results
indicate that there is no sharp resonant state corresponding to the
distinguished peak observed just above the 8Be+n threshold in the
photodisintegration cross section of 9Be. On the other hand, the
recent experimental cross section data can be well explained by the
α+α+n calculation. From these results, we concluded that the first
excited 1/2+ state in 9Be is a 8Be+n virtual state but not resonant one.
The virtual states in nuclear systems have been discussed in the
T = 1 states of two-nucleon systems for a long time, and recently
again much interest is acquired in association with weak binding
problems of neutron rich nuclei. The low energy photodisintegration
reaction of 9Be has also received much attention from the viewpoint
of the astrophysical interest. The cross section of the
photodisintegration has been discussed to be negligibly small in the
energy region between thresholds of α + α + n (1.5736 MeV) and
8
Be+n (1.6654 MeV). The observed cross section above the 8Be+n
shows a prominent peak, although there are some discrepancies
among the experimental absolute values. The cross section profile
has an asymmetric character and cannot be explained by a simple
resonance formula like the Breit-Wigner form.
We investigate the cross section form of the photodisintegration
and the phase shift behavior of a virtual state assuming a simple twobody model. The CSM has been shown to be a very powerful
framework to solve the resonance poles of the many-body S-matrix.
In the previous paper, the two-body scattering phase shifts are
presented to be described by the eigenvalues of the complex scaled
Hamiltonian. However, a case of virtual states was not included
because the isolated virtual-state eigenvalues cannot be solved in the
CSM. Although there is no isolated solution, it is shown that the
photodisintegration of the virtual state can be described using the
complex scaled continuum (CSC) states. This result suggests the
scattering phase shifts of virtual states can bee also calculated with
the CSM, and it is expected that the virtual states characterization
can be investigated through the PDXS of the two-body system in
detail.
Current status of superheavy element search in the GARIS-II
facility at RIKEN
S. Yamaki1,2, K. Morimoto1, D. Kaji1, Y. Wakabayashi1, M.
Takeyama1,3; K. Tanaka1,4, H. Baba1, T. Yamaguchi2, T. Suzuki2, and
K. Morita1,5
1
Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198, Japan; 2
Dep. of Phys., Saitama Univ., Saitama 338-8570, Japan; 3 Grad. Sch.
of Sci. and Eng., Yamagata Univ., Yamagata 990-8560, Japan; 4Fac.
of Sci. and Tech., Tokyo University of Science, Chiba 278-8510,
Japan; 5 Dep. of Phys., Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan
The project to synthesize the 113th element by the reaction 209Bi +
70
Zn 278113 + n started at RIKEN in 2003. Three decay chains
started from 278113 were observed in 2004, 2005, and 2012 [1-3].
This project had come to an end with the observation of 3rd decay
chain. We are now focusing on searching for undiscovered
superheavy elements. A series of commissioning experiments of new
gas-filled separator GARIS-II [4] designed for hot fusion reaction
has been almost completed.
The half-lives of superheavy nuclei are predicted by several
theoretical calculations where mass formulae indicate that the halflives will be in an order of microseconds for some nuclei with Z
heavier than 120 [5, 6]. The decay energies and decay times of such
short-lived nuclei are difficult to measure with existing system
because of pileup phenomena. To overcome this difficulty, a digital
data acquisition system with flash-ADC was implemented to the
GARIS-II reading out system. Here, waveforms from the preamplifier are directly registered with flash-ADC. Then the pulse
shape analysis is applied for the waveforms [7].
In this contribution, a review of current status of new element
search and the development of the new data acquisition system with
flash-ADC and pulse shape analysis will be presented.
References:
[1] K. Morita et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 73 (2004) 2593.
[2] K. Morita et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 76 (2007) 045001.
[3] K. Morita et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81 (2012) 103201.
[4] D. Kaji et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 317 (2013) 311.
[5] Yu.Ts. Oganessian et al., Phys. Rev. C 79 (2009) 024603.
[6] A. Sobiczewski, Acta. Phys. Pol. B 42 (2011) 1871.
[7] S. Yamaki et al., JPS Conf. Proc. 6 (2015) 030105.
Half-life measurement of isomeric state in 25Si
D. Nishimura1, K. Aoki1, T. Nagai1, Y. Takei1, A. Takenouchi1,
M. Fukuda2, J. Chiba1, K. Chikaato3, Du2, S. Fukuda4, A. Ikeda3, T.
Izumikawa5, S. Kanbayashi2, N. Kanda3, Y. Kanke1, I. Kato6, A.
Kitagawa4, M. Machida1, M. Mihara2, E. Miyata3, J. Nagumo1, K.
Nishizuka3, S. Ohmika6, K. Ohnishi2, T. Ohtsubo3, H. Oikawa1, S.
Sato4, T. Sugihara2, T. Suzuki6, N. Tadano6, H. Takahashi3, M.
Takechi3, M. Tanaka2, Y. Tanaka2, S. Yagi1, T. Yamaguchi6, S.
Yamaoka2, and K. Yokoyama3
1
Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, Noda,
Chiba 278-8510, Japan; 2 Department of Physics, Osaka University,
Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan; 3Department of Physics, Niigata
University, Niigata 950-2102, Japan; 4National Institute of
Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555, Japan;
5
RI Center, Niigata University, Niigata 950-8510, Japan
6
Department of Physics, Saitama University, Saitama 338-8570,
Japan
The rapid proton capture process (rp-process) passing through
proton-rich nuclei plays an important role in the nucleosynthesis as
well as the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). However, a
possible path of the rp-process 24Al(p,γ)25Si(p,γ)26P(p,γ)27S has not
been well studied yet due to lack of experimental data for their
nuclear structure. Since the temperature in the hydrogen burning is
around 109 K (= ~100 keV), low-lying excited states can affect the
rp-process taking into account the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.
In the proton drip-line nucleus 26P, we have recently observed an
isomeric state at Ex = 164.4(1) keV and determined the half-life T1/2
= 120(9) ns [1]. On the other hand, the first excited state at Ex =
40(5) keV in 25Si, which is also a candidate for the isomer, has not
been researched yet in detail. In order to measure the half-life of the
first excited state in 25Si, the γ-ray spectroscopy have been performed
at NIRS-HIMAC.
A secondary beam including 25Si was produced by the projectile
fragmentation of a 300-MeV/u primary beam of 28Si on a 20-mmthick CH2 target. The secondary beam was separated and identified
by using SB2 beamline and was implanted in an active stopper
consisting of three plastic scintillators. The γ rays were measured
with three kinds of detectors surrounding the stopper, four LaBr 3(Ce)
detectors (1.5 in. x 1.5 in.), a HPGe detector (50 mm x 20 mm), and
a NaI(Tl) detector (5 in. x70mm). The delayed γ rays of 44.2(1) keV
have been observed by these detectors. By fitting theγgated decay
curve, the half-life has been determined to be 43(1) ns for the first
time.
The transition probability deduced from the γ-ray energy and the
half-life suggests M1 multipolarity with Weisskopf estimation. Since
the excitation energy and the half-life of this state are similar to those
of the first excited state (Jπ= 3/2+, Ex = 89.53 keV, T1/2 = 5.1(3) ns) in
T = 3/2 mirror nucleus 25Na, the spin-parity of the isomeric state in
25
Si is probably assigned as 3/2+.
Reference:
[1] D. Nishimura et al., EPJ Web of Conferences 66, 02072
(2014).
The puzzle of electron screening and nuclear clustering
C. Spitaleri, Department of Physics and Astromomy, University
of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del
Sud, Catania, Italy.∗ C. A. Bertulani, Department of Physics and
Astromomy, Texas A&M University-Commerce, Commerce, TX
75429, USA; L. Fortunato and A. Vitturi, Dipartimento di Fisica
e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Universita` di PadovaPadova,
Italy and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Padova, Italy
Accurate measurements of nuclear reactions of astrophysical
interest within, or close to, the Gamow peak, show evidence of an
unexpected effect attributed to the presence of atomic electrons in the
target. The experiments need to include an effective “screening”
potential to explain the enhancement of the cross sections at the
lowest measurable energies (1).
Despite various theoretical studies conducted over the past 20
years and numerous experimental measurements, a theory has not yet
been found that can explain the cause of the exceedingly high values
of the screening potential needed to explain the data.
In this talk will be presented that instead of an atomic physics
solution of the “electron screening puzzle”, the reason for the large
screening potential values is in fact due to clusterization effects in
nuclear reactions, in particular for reaction involving light nuclei (2).
References:
[1] C. Rolfs, W. Rodney, Cauldrons in the Cosmos, The
University of Chicago, 1988, p. 561.
[2] C. Spitaleri, C. A. BertulaniL. Fortunato and A. Vitturi
Physics Letters B 755 (2016) 275.
Influence of the cluster polarization on spectrum and
reactions in mirror 8Li and 8B nuclei
V. S. Vasilevsky1, N. Zh. Takibayev2, A. D. Duisenbay2
1
Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine
2
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Analysis of the astrophysical data on the abundance of light
atomic nuclei in the Universe stimulated new and more detail
experimental and theoretical investigations of reactions induced by
interaction of light nuclei. For the astrophysical applications one has
to know the cross section of a reaction at the low energy region,
which amounts several keV in the entrance channel of the reaction.
This region of energy can be easily achieved at experimental
facilities for the reactions induced by interaction of neutrons with
light nuclei. However, it is not the case for interaction of light nuclei,
containing one or more protons. Coulomb interaction between nuclei
makes very difficult to measure the cross section. In this case
theoretical methods are invaluable tool to determine or to evaluate
the cross section of importance.
As many of light nuclei are weakly bound, they could easy
change their size or shape while interacting with neutrons, protons or
other light nuclei. This phenomenon is called the polarization. A
microscopic three-cluster model was formulated in Ref. [1] to take
into account polarizability of the interacting clusters. We refer to it as
"cluster polarization". It was shown in Refs [1-2] that cluster
polarization plays an important role in formation of bound and
resonance states in seven nucleon systems. It was also shown that
cluster polarization has large impact on different types of reactions in
7
Li and 7Be nuclei. Within the present paper, the effects of cluster
polarization will be studied in light mirror nuclei 8Li and 8B, and
interaction of neutron with 7Li and proton with 7Be. Both 7Li and 7Be
nuclei have well established two-cluster structure: 4He+3H and
4
He+3He, respectively. This fact is taken into account in the present
model.
We consider spectrum bound and resonance states of the mirror
nuclei 8Li and 8B within the three-cluster microscopic model. We
selected several semi-realistic potentials to represent nucleonnucleon interaction in eight-nucleon systems. Effects of the spinorbital components of nucleon-nucleon interaction on spectrum of
8
Li and 8B are studied in detail. Our calculations confirm that these
nuclei exhibit the halo properties as a radius of proton (neutron)
cloud is much smaller neutron (proton) cloud in bound states of 8Li
(8B). It is established that cluster polarization has large impact on
energy of bound states and on energy and width of resonance states.
Besides, cluster polarization strongly affects phase shift and cross
section of the elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons on 7Li and
protons on 7Be.
One of our aims is to consider how cluster polarization affects
the radiative capture reactions 7Li(n,γ)8Li and 7Be(p,γ)8B. We also
study correlations between parameters of the bound states and the
astrophysical S-factor of the reactions.
References:
[1] V.S. Vasilevsky, F. Arickx, J. Broeckhove, T.P. Kovalenko,
A microscopic three-cluster model with nuclear polarization applied
to the resonances of 7Be and the reaction 6Li(p,3He)4He. Nucl.
Phys., A824, pp. 37-57, 2009.
[2] V.S. Vasilevsky, A.V. Nesterov, T.P. Kovalenko, Three-cluster
model of radiative capture reactions in seven-nucleon systems.
Effects of cluster polarization. Phys. Atom. Nucl., 75, pp. 818-831,
2012.
Forced reverse reactions in neutron star matter
Nurgali Takibayev
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Nuclear reactions and processes that occur in neutron star
envelopes were considered in the frame of their mutual influences.
Most part of these are stimulated by over dense matter and
transformed to exotic states, which cannot appear in ordinary
terrestrial conditions or in laboratory experiments. It was shown the
important roles of forced reverse reactions and nonlinear interactions
as well as few-body effects and actions of ordering crystalline
structures in forming of these states. Remarkable that the chemical
composition of primordial matter of a neutron star determines the
evolution of the neutron star matter and peculiarities of nuclear
reactions and processes. For example, the neutron resonances of fewbody type that arise in crystalline structure have the selected
character and take place only in suitable layers that lead to local
oscillations of density. The nonlinear interactions can result to
reactions with gammas, which knockout alpha particles from the
nuclei. Then the inner crust layers will be enriched with free neutrons
and alpha particles also. The calculations demonstrate cardinal
distinction between the processes of isotope transformation in the
case of Fe group and the element transformation of Al group.
Elastic scattering of 3Hе ions on 14N at energies near the
coulomb barrier
N.Burtebayev1, Zh.K.Kerimkulov1, D.К.Alimov1,2,
А.V.Yushkov2, Y.S.Mukhamejanov2, D.М.Janseitov3,
A.N.Bаhtibayev4, А.Patteyev4
1
INP, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2КazNU, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 3ЕNU,
Astana, Kazakhstan,
4
IКТU, Turkestan, Kazakhstan; e-mail: diliyo@mail.ru
Analysis of scattering data within the optical model is the main
source of information about potentials of the nucleus-nucleus
interaction. It is well known, however, that for complex projectiles
with A ≥ 2, such analysis is ambiguous. An especially complicated
situation occurs at low energies (E < 10 MeV/nucleon). Numerous
studies have shown that the ambiguity in the extracted parameters of
the real part of the nuclear potential can be both continuous and
discrete. The aim of this work is to study the elastic and inelastic
scattering of α-particles and 3He on 14N nuclei at energies of 50 - 60
MeV, i.e., where the nuclear rainbow effects begin to manifest
themselves clearly. These energies are sufficiently high to avoid the
worst complications of compound nuclear effects [1,2].
The measurements were carried out with beams of 3He from the
isochronous cyclotron U-150M of the Institute of Nuclear Physics
(Almaty, Kazakhstan). The energy of 3He ions were 50 and 60 MeV.
A gas target was used in the experiment. It is a cylindrical cell filled
with natural nitrogen (99.61% of 14N) to a pressure of about 1
atmosphere. The effective thickness of the target was in the range
from 1 to 7 mg/cm2, depending on the measurement angle. The
uncertainty in the estimation of the thickness was not more than 3%.
In more detail, the target design is described in [3].
Scattered particles were detected by a counter telescope
consisting of two silicon detectors with thicknesses of 100 microns
(ΔE) and 2 mm (E). The α-particles and 3He were separated from
other charged products of nuclear reactions by means of twodimensional analysis technique (ΔE-E). The total energy resolution
was ranged from 400 to 500 keV, depending on the scattering angle,
and determined mainly by the spread of the beam energy and the
target thickness.
Differential cross sections for elastic scattering have been
measured in the range of angles from 10° to 170° in the laboratory
system. Angular distributions, as can be seen from the figures shown
in the next section, have a diffractive structure up to angles 60° –
70°. With increasing angle this structure decays and is replaced by a
broad maximum with a further fall-off at larger angles without
pronounced oscillations. The statistical uncertainties of the measured
differential cross sections are less than 10%.
References:
[1] D.A. Goldberg, S.M. Smith, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 500 (1972).
[2] D.A. Goldberg, S.M. Smith, G.E. Burdzik, Phys. Rev. C10,
1362 (1974).
[3] A.D. Duisebayev, G.N. Ivanov, N.T. Burtebayev et al.Izv. AN
Kaz. SSR, ser. fiz.-mat. 4, 73, 1984.
The process of scattering of 13C ions on 12C nuclei at energies
close to the Coulomb barrier
N. Burtebayev 1, J.T. Burtebayeva 1, A. Duisebayev1, T.
Zholdybayev1, Maulen Nassurlla 2,Marzhan Nassurlla2, S.B. Sakuta
3
, S. Kliczewski4, E. Piasecki4, K. Rusek5, A. Trzcińska5, M.
Wolińska-Cichocka5, S.V. Artemov 6
1
Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty, Kazakhstan; 2Al-Farabi
Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan; 3National
Research Center “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow, Russia;
4
H. Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish
Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland; 5Heavy Ion Laboratory of
Warsaw University, Warsaw, Poland; 6Institute of Nuclear Physics,
Tashkent, Uzbekistan
The neutron transfer mechanism is responsible for the cross
section increase at backward hemisphere of angles in the elastic
scattering 12С(13С,12С)13С. In this context, study of the cross sections
in this area is of great interest for astrophysics since it allows us to
estimate cross sections of the possible radiation capture 12С(n, ) 13С
reaction and its role in the evolution of the Universe immediately
after the Big-Bang. Previously elastic scattering 12С + 13С at an
energy close to our, was investigated in limited range of angles up to
600 [1]. In present work the angular range extended substantially (up
1200 in the center mass system). Differential cross sections for elastic
and inelastic scattering of 13C ions on the 12C nuclei were measured
using a beam extracted from the Cyclotron K = 160 HIL (Warsaw
University) at the energy 2.5 MeV/nucleon (see the figure).The
experimental data on elastic and inelastic scattering have been
analyzed within the framework of the optical model (OM) and the
Coupled Reaction Channels (CRC) method with code FRESCO [2]
taking into account the neutron transfer mechanism. The set of the
optimal parameters are V0=73.1 MeV, r0=1.03fm, a0=0.699fm,
W=35.22 MeV, rw=1.19fm, aw=0.211fm. Additionally, were obtained
the differential cross section of inelastic scattering of excited state of
12
C nuclei 2+. The value of the deformation parameter δ=1.1 were
extracted from the analysis of experimental data of inelastic
scattering.
Figure: Angular distribution of the elastic scattering of 13С on
С at the 32.5 MeV. The red circles are elastic experimental data
while black circles are inelastic experimental data. Curves: blue line
is the optical model prediction; green represents the coupled reaction
channels calculation of elastic scattering by code FRESCO, violet
represents FRESCO analysis of inelastic scattering.
12
References:
[1] Gary D. Westfall and Zaidi S.A.A., Physical Review C, 14,
610 (1976).
[2] Thompson I.J., Comput. Phys. Rep.,7,167(1988).
Elastic scattering of 3He ions from 13C nuclei in optical and
folding models
N. Burtebayev1, Zh.K. Kerimkulov1, A.S. Demyanova2, D.M.
Janseitov3, D.K. Alimov4, Y.S. Mukhamejanov4, A. Shakirov4;
1
Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty, Kazakhstan, 2NRC Kurcatov
Institute, Moscow, Russia, 3ENU, Astana, Kazakhstan
4
KazNU, Almaty, Kazakhstan
The scattering of nucleons and complex nuclear particles
(deuterons, alpha particles, heavy ions) on the nuclei is an important
source of information about nuclear structure [1]. But the parameters
of optical potential of interaction of particles with light nuclei at low
and medium energies, derived from the analysis of differential cross
sections of elastic scattering in the optical model (OM), are subject to
ambiguities and require reliable estimates.
In order to obtain reliable information about the potential of
nuclear interaction, obtained in a cyclotron of Institute of Nuclear
Physics (Almaty, Kazakhstan), the experimental data [2] on the
scattering of ions 3He in 13C nuclei at 50 and 60 MeV analyzed both
in terms of the standard optical model with the set of potential in the
parameterized form and finding its parameters by comparing the
theoretical and experimental cross sections, and within a microscopic
model in which the potentials are based on the effective nucleusnucleus forces [3].
In this paper we carried out a comparative analysis of the elastic
scattering of 3He ions from 13C nuclei in optical and folding models.
Joint analysis by standard optical model of the nucleus and
folding model based on full M3Y effective interaction, allowed to
eliminate the ambiguity of the optical potential. The optimal physical
reasonable values of the parameters of optical potential and the
normalization coefficients for the real part of folding potential are
found. It is shown that both potential correlated and give a similar
description of the experimental data.
References:
[1] G.R. Satchler. Direct Nuclear Reactions.N.Y.- Oxford:Oxford
Ulliv.Press, 1983.
[2] N. Burtebaev, A. Duisebaev, B. A. Duisebaev, and S. B.
Sakuta. Elastic Scattering of 3He Nuclei on 13C Nuclei at 50 and 60
MeV and V–W Ambiguity in Choosing Optical Potentials // Physics
of Atomic Nuclei 63, 4 (2000).
[3] G.R. Satchler, W.G. Love. Folding model potentials from
realistic interactions for heavy-ion scattering // Phys. Rep. 55 (1979).
Probing Core-Collapse Supernova Central Engine with
Gravitational Waves
Ernazar Abdikamalov
Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan
Core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) are powerful explosions of
massive stars at the end of their lives, leaving behind neutron stars or
black holes. CCSNe are responsible for the production of elements
heavier than iron throughout the universe. Neutron stars contain
nuclear matter under extreme conditions of high density, very hot
temperatures, and strong magnetic fields. Some of the most pressing
open questions in astrophysics, nuclear physics, and neutrino physics
are posed in the context of CCSNe. Gravitational waves (GW)
emitted during core-collapse supernovae open a new window into its
central engine. The late collapse, core bounce, and the early
postbounce dynamics of a rotating core leads to a characteristic GW
signal. I will review the recent progress in modeling GW signals
from CCSNe and discuss how GWs can be used to probe conditions
in the cores of such supernovae.
Bounces and exotic compact objects from gravitational
collapse; Analytical insights into the strong field regime
Daniele Malafarina
Nazarbayev University, Astana, Kazakhstan
We investigate how proposed modifications to general relativity
in the strong field regime affect the black hole formation scenario.
We show that continuous collapse is generically replaced by a
bounce where the singularity doesn't form and matter re-expands
after reaching an extremely compact configuration of finite size
determined by the natural scale of quantum-gravity. Finally we
derive the conditions for collapse to lead to the formation of a finite
size exotic compact object.
Elastic and inelastic 11B+d scattering
N. Burtebayev1, Y. Mukhamejanov1,2, Zh. Kerimkulov1, D.
Alimov1,2, D. Janseitov1.3, M. Nassurlla1,2, Sh. Hamada4
1
Institute of Nuclear Physics, 2 Al-Farabi Kazakh National
University, Almaty, Kazakhstan; 3 Eurasian National University,
Astana, Kazakhstan, 4 Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Tanta,
Egypt; E-mail: y.mukhamejanov@gmail.com
Experiment on measurement of differential cross sections of
elastic and inelastic scattering of deuterons from 11B. was performed
at deuteron beam extracted form isochronous cyclotron U-150M at
Institute of Nuclear Physics (Almaty, Kazakhstan). The extracted
deuterons beam has been accelerated to energies 14.5 MeV and then
directed to a thin 11B foil target. The measurements were carried out
in a vacuum volume of the special multi-purpose scattering chamber,
which included two independent ΔE-E telescopes. Each telescope
consisted of two silicon semiconductor detectors. The first telescope
covers angular range of small angles up to 200, whereas the second
telescope covers angular range of 200-1500 in laboratory system.
Angular distributions for elastic and inelastic scattering were
obtained within angular range of 100-1500 in laboratory system. The
behavior of differential cross sections for these states has noticeable
diffraction pattern. The data on elastic scattering were analyzed
within the framework of the standard optical model of the nucleus,
where the influence of inelastic channels is taken into account by
introducing a phenomenological imaginary absorptive part in the
interaction potential between the colliding nuclei. The theoretical
calculations for the abovementioned excited states were performed
using the coupled channel method implemented in computer code
FRESCO [2].
The experimental data for 11B+d scattering at other energies 13.6
MeV [3] and 27.2 MeV [4] was analyzed in addition to the
experimental data obtained in this experiment.
This work is supported by grant of MES of the Republic of
Kazakhstan # 1460 GF4.
References:
[1] Thompson I.J. Coupled reaction channels calculations in
nuclear physics // Comput. Phys. Rep. – 1988. – Vol.7. – P. 167-212.
[2]
A.N.Vereshchagin,
I.N.Korostova,
L.S.Sokolov,
V.V.Tokarevskii, I.P.Chernov Investigation of elastic scattering of
deuterons on light nuclei with 13.6 MeV energy. // Bull. Russian
Academy of Sciences – Physics. 1969.-Vol.32. p.573
[3] R.J.Slobodrian Scattering of 27.2 MeV deuterons on
beryllium and boron // Nuclear Physics. 1962.Vol.32, p.684
Analysis of elastic and inelastic scattering of 3He ions on 9Be
nuclei at energy 60 MeV
N. Burtebayev1, S.K. Sakhiyev1, Y. Mukhamejanov1, N.V.
Glushchenko 1, M. Nassurlla1, B. Urazbekov1, L.I. Galanina2
1
Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty, Kazakhstan
2
Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow, Russia
3
Experimental differential cross sections of 3He ions
scattering on 9Be nuclei at energy 60 MeV were measured at wide
angular range 10o-160o in laboratory system at U-150M cyclotron of
INP (Almaty). For both angular distributions of elastic and inelastic
scattering leading to 5/2- state (Q=2.43 MeV) one can observe
noticeable enhancement of cross section at largest scattering angles.
A combined analysis of elastic and inelastic scattering within
the framework of coupled reactions channel method while taking
into account contributions of potential scattering and cluster transfer
mechanisms allowed to reproduce the behavior of angular
distributions of 3He ions scattering from 9Be nuclei in full angular
range. The calculations were carried out using FRESCO computer
code. The spectroscopic factors of 9Be nucleus as "3He+6He"
obtained from the fitting of calculated and experimental data are in
agreement with the values taken from literature.
Phase shifts of molecular resonance transparence
Krassovitskiy P.M., Pen’kov F.M.
Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty, Kazakhstan; E-mail:
pavel.kras@inp.kz
The report provides the features of resonant transition of the
potential repulsive barrier by the beryllium molecule, height and
width of which have the scale of the beryllium atom interaction with
the crystal surface. Previously [1] the integral contribution of the
resonant transition of the molecule in the physical observables has
been considered. As a result, the simple formulas to evaluate this
contribution have been obtained.
To expand the range of possible applications of the resonance
transition effect, this work analyzes the amplitudes of transition and
reflection either for elastic and inelastic processes.
1.0
Im(R)
0.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
-0.5
-1.0
Re (R)
Fig. 1. The behavior of real and imaginary parts of the resonance
reflection amplitude R near the resonance depending on the molecule
energy. The arrow indicates the direction of the moving with the
energy increase.
In particular, it is shown that the contrast of the molecular
interference pattern on the crystals surface depends strongly on the
energy of the molecules.
The work is being performed under the financial support of the
MES RK grant 0333/GF4.
Reference:
[1] P. M. Krassovitskiy, and F. M. Pen’kov// J. Phys. B: 2014.
V.47. P. 225210.
Inelastic Proton Scattering on the Ground and Excited States
of 9Be Nucleus in the Framework of the Diffraction Multiple
Scattering Theory
R.S.Kabatayeva1 ,M.A.Zhusupov1, E.T.Ibraeva2
al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 2Institute of Nuclear
Research,
Almaty, Kazakhstan
1
Be9 is a stable light nucleus, it is strongly deformed and weaklybound in the cluster channels. The binding energy is anomalous low
in three-particle + + n - channel (ε = 1.57 MeV) and two-particle
n + Be8 - and + He5 - channels (ε = 1.67 MeV and ε = 2.47 MeV
respectively), but in two-particle Li8 + p – channel its binding energy
is too high and equals ε = 16.9 MeV. In the ground 3/2- state of this
nucleus the mean-square radius equals 2.44 fm, and there is no halo
structure in the ground state. But in the excited 1/2+ and 3/2+ states
one observes exotic structures such as halo since their mean-square
radii equals to 2.83 fm and 2.976 fm respectively and it seems that
when exciting the nucleus increases in size and gains the halo
structure.
Elastic and inelastic (for the J = 1/2+ level) differential cross
sections in the framework of the Glauber theory were calculated by
the authors at Е = 180 and 220 MeV and compared to the
experimental data. The goal of the present study is a calculation of
the differential cross section of the inelastic scattering of protons
with energy of 180 MeV to the excited J = 3/2+ and 5/2- states of
the 9Ве nucleus in the framework of the Glauber theory and a
comparison with the results obtained in other formalisms.
The Matrix Element of Scattering in the Glauber theory is
defined by the formula
M if (q)
ik
d 2 ρ exp(iqρ) (R A ) fJ M J iJM J
2
M J M J
where ρ - is an impact parameter, which is a two-dimensional
vector in the Glauber theory, RA− is a coordinate of the target
nucleus mass center, Ψ − initial and final states wave functions of the
target nucleus, k - are incoming and outgoing momenta of the proton,
q − is a momentum transfer in the reaction, Ω – is the Glauber
multiple scattering operator.
Differential cross sections of the inelastic р9Ве-scattering for the
Jπ = 3/2+, 5/2- levels at proton energies of 180 MeV are calculated
and compared with the experimental data and with the calculation in
the distorted waves method. The differential cross sections calculated
in the framework of the Glauber multiple scattering theory agree
with the available experimental data in the range of the forward
angles for the Jπ = 3/2+ level and do not agree for the Jπ = 5/2- level.
Note that the Glauber theory has essential restrictions for energy and
angle range of the particles scattered. Since the incident particles
energy is not too large, then the results are reliable for forward
scattering angles only. The calculation at large angles is beyond the
Glauber theory accuracy.
The analysis of the profiles of the wave functions in 2αn models showed that in the excited Jπ = 3/2+, 5/2- states the nucleus
has different structures: diffuse with extended asymptotic (with long
tail) in the Jπ = 3/2+ state and compact with short asymptotic in the Jπ
= 5/2- state. The calculation of the mean-square radii confirms this
conclusion: 2.976 fm for the Jπ = 3/2+ state and 2.13 fm for the Jπ =
5/2- state.
The analysis of the wave functions allowed one to connect them
with the behavior of the cross sections and show the influence of the
contribution of the wave functions different parts on the differential
cross sections.
Calculation of neutron passage through catalytic composition
(pb, bi, po) by mcnp program
M.Abishev, N. Kenzhebayev and M. Khassanov
Kazakh National University named after Al-Farabi, Almaty,
Kazakhstan
The purpose of this work is to verify the correctness of the
catalyst composition with the numerical simulation (by MCNP
program) and to calculate the passage of neutrons through this
material. The passage of neutrons through the catalyst composition
was modelled by MCNP program (Monte-Carlo N-Particle), created
in the laboratory of Los Alamos (United States) was used for the
simulation to calculate reactors and the interaction of neutrons,
photons and electrons with matter. With this program, it has been
calculated reflection coefficient, transmission and absorption of
neutrons substance and the reaction rate as a function of neutron
energy. Obtained results were compared with the results of analytical
calculations. Also, the analysis was made to select the geometry
catalyst composition, in which reaction efficiency cyclic be
maximized. The calculation of the concentration of the catalytic
composition of elements was calculated in work.
By varying the neutron energy of 0.02 eV to 10 MeV at a
logarithmic scale following results were obtained
• The average number of radiative neutron capture reaction
(n, g);
• The average number of elastic collisions of neutrons in the
substance;
• The average number of neutrons passing through the plate;
• The rate of alpha particles, depending on the time.
The nature of the passage of neutrons through the material
depends on the parameters of irradiating a target spectrum and
neutron energies and cross sections of the elements of composition.
It is very important role played by the geometric parameters of the
target and the spectrum of the neutron flux. With MCNP program,
we can calculate the passage of neutrons through the composition
depending on the neutron energy and the thickness of the plates and
determine the most suitable geometry for irradiation.
The main result of this simulation is to calculate the reaction
rate (n, α), i.e. the rate of formation of alpha particles. Since the
catalytic conversion of a part must be four neutrons in the alpha
particle, the speed of this reaction should not change over time. Thus
it is possible to check the correctness of the theoretical results of the
catalytic composition, calculated in. The main sources of alpha
particles and are Po211 Po210 core. Po211 allocates α-particle in the
reaction Po211 (n, α) Pb207. With MCNP program can calculate the
speed (n, α) reactions to this. The results are shown in Figure 4.g.
The most minimum time interval is equal to 10-8 c (1-shake) and the
exposure time equal to 104 seconds or 1012 shakes (2.777 hour).The
rate of reaction (n, a) become stable after exposure time of 10-3
seconds and the number of produced helium nuclei does not change
in time. These simulation results are proof that the initial condition
concentrations were correct.
Proof of the existence of the neutron catalysis is s-process
occurring inside stars. It is believed that the s-process is one of the
main processes of nuclear fusion in the massive main sequence stars.
But to create a model to meet the flow conditions of the s-process in
the land impossible. But you can choose the elements for the flow of
cyclical reactions and initial concentration of these elements so as to
perform cyclic nuclear reaction.
Multidimensional Gravity and Cosmology, Variations of
Constants and New SI
Vitaly Melnikov
Centre for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS,
and Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, PFUR, 46 Ozernaya
Str., 119361, Moscow, Russia
New challenges to theoretical physics and the role of gravity and
cosmology are discussed.
Problems of gravitation as the fundamental interaction and
fundamental physical constants choice, their classification, number,
precision of measurement, possible variations and their role in
fundamental theories of physics are analyzed.
Suggestions for transition to new definitions of SI units based on
fundamental constants, different variants and arising problems are
analyzed.
Special attention is devoted to theories with variations of
constants, especially with scalar fields and multidimensional ones
and the problems of G: its absolute value measurements, possible
time and range variation.
The dynamics of electron-hole plasma in the semiconductor
excited by high power light pulses
Serik Kumekov
Institute of High Technologies and Sustainable Development at
the K.I. Satpayev Kazakh National Technical Research University
Almaty, 050013, Republic of Kazakhstan; E-mail:
skumekov@mail.ru
Interband absorption of a short light pulse causes the reversible
transparency of a GaAs sample on a picosecond time scale. Right
after the pulse, on a time span shorter than that of the spontaneous
recombination, the condition of the developed electron-hole plasma
depends neither on the pulse energy, nor on the energy of exciting
photons. The radiation has been found that correlates with the
excitation on a picosecond time scale. The mechanisms of reversible
transparency and superluminescence have been studied. Cooling time
of the electron-hole plasma in semiconductor increases considerably
with the plasma concentration. The reason for such a slowing down
of cooling is shown to be the heating of optical phonons. An estimate
for the time needed to restore quasi Fermi distribution among the
nonequilibrium electrons is obtained. The conditions are found for
the emergence of relaxation oscillations of superluminescence
resulting from the recovery of equilibrium distribution.
To the theory of electrostatic probe in dusty plasma,
generated by a volume source of fission fragments
S.Kunakov , Zh.Bolatov, A.Shapiyeva
International IT University, Almaty, Kazakhstan; e–mail:
sandybeck.kunakov@gmail.com
In the present paper the theory of electrostatic probe in nuclear
induced dusty plasma is regarded .The grains are equally small in
their mass and size .The charging process in plasma is limited by
interaction of dust grains and electrons by quasi neutrality condition
and total gain's charge is equal to Z =
3kTer0
and reaches its
2e2
maximum values up to 10 4 e[1].We define the ratio of electrons
concentration and positive ions concentration in the undisturbed
region by probe field as d =
ne
,which also should be obtained. The
n+
nuclear induced plasma in core of nuclear reactor is created by the
following nuclear reaction 3 He+ n ® p+T + 0.76Mev. In present
paper the theoretical analysis developed to get the detailed
explanations of probe diagnostics technique of negative grains in
plasma mixtures like 3 He+ DG(grains) ,where electrons and
negative grains are presented in unknown proportion.
Application of sum coincidence corrections for study of
reaction rate of residual nuclei in fission and spallation
Fariza Sagimbaeva
Joint institute for nuclear research, Dubna, Russia; E-mail.ru:
fariza-dutches@mail.ru
Nowadays, problem with managing of spent nuclear fuel is an
important issue. Therefore development of advanced nuclear systems
is essential. Our group in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research
focuses on accelerator driven systems. It uses special set-ups made
from spallation target and subcritical blanket. The set-ups are
irradiated by relativistic proton or deuteron beam and a vast amount
of neutrons comes into existence. Use of activation detectors for
measurement of the neutron production is a reliable and very
convenient method. When reaction rates of residual nuclei from
fission and spallation reactions are evaluated, corrections of sum
coincidence effect need to be taken into consideration.
Analyzing power of Inverse Diproton Photodisintegration at
Intermediate Energies
Bota Baimurzinova
baymurzinova@jinr.ru (JINR, Dubna)
The reaction 𝛾 + {𝑝𝑝}𝑠 → 𝑝 + 𝑝, where diproton {𝑝𝑝}𝑠 is a
proton pair in 1S0 state, is a spin-isospin partner of the fundamental
reaction of deuteron photodisintegration. The inverse reaction, the
hard bremsstrahlung 𝑝 + 𝑝 → 𝛾 + {𝑝𝑝}𝑠 , has been observed with the
ANKE spectometer at COSY-Julich. It's analyzing power has been
measured at forward angles at several energies in the region of
(1232) isobar exictation. Together with the di erential cross section
measured earlier, it would allow to better estimate various multipoles
contributions.
Multipole structure of compact objects
Hernando Quevedo
National Autonomous University of Mexico and University of
Rome
From a theoretical point of view, to completely describe the
gravitational field of compact objects it is enough to know their
multipole structure. In Einstein theory, however, it is very difficult to
find physically meaningful exact solutions with a given multipole
structure. In this talk, I will review the main attempts utilized so far
to attack this problem, and will propose a novel method which takes
into account the mathematical symmetries of the field equations.
Observational and theoretical constraints on the mass-radius
relations of neutron stars
Kuantay Boshkayev
Physical–Technical Faculty, Al-Farabi Kazakh National
University, Al-Farabi ave. 71, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan
The equilibrium configurations of slowly rotating neutron stars
are investigated by using the Hartle formalism in the case of the
Einstein-Maxwell-Thomas-Fermi equations [1]. We integrate these
equations of equilibrium for different central densities and angular
velocities and compute all basic parameters describing physical
properties of neutron stars. Both the Keplerian mass-shedding limit
and the axisymmetric secular instability are used to construct the new
mass-radius relations. We show the mass-radius relations together
with the most recent and stringent constraints indicated by Trumper
[2].
References:
[1] R.Belvedere, K. Boshkayev, J. Rueda, R. Ruffini, Uniformly
rotating neutron stars in the global and local charge neutrality cases,
Nuclear Physics A 921 (2014) 33–59.
[2] J.E. Trumper, Observations of neutron stars and the equation
of state of matter at high densities, Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 66 (2011)
674–680.
Dynamics of two-cluster systems in phase space
Yuliya Lashko1, Gennady Filippov1, and Viktor Vasilevsky1
Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev, Ukraine
1
We present a phase-space representation of quantum state vectors
for two-cluster systems which is valid both for finite h¹ and when h¹
goes to zero. The Bargmann-Segal transformation was used to map
wave functions of two-cluster systems in the coordinate space into
the Fock-Bargmann space. The density distribution in the phase
space was compared with those in the coordinate and momentum
representations.
Density distributions in the Fock–Bargmann space were
constructed for bound and resonance states of 6;7Li and 7;8Be,
provided that all these nuclei are treated within a microscopic twocluster model. The dominant two-cluster partition of each nucleus
was taken into consideration: 6Li = ® + d, 7Li = ® + t, 7Be = ® +3 He,
8
Be = ® + ®. The microscopic model is based on the resonatinggroup method and uses a full set of oscillator functions to expand a
wave function of relative motion of interacting clusters. The input
parameters of the model and nucleon-nucleon potential were selected
to optimize description of the internal structure of clusters and to
reproduce position of the ground state with respect to the two-cluster
threshold.
We considered a wide range of excitation energies of compound
systems, but special attention was devoted to the bound and
resonance states. Bound states and narrow resonance states realize
themselves in a very compact area of the phase space. We establish
the quantitative boundaries of this region for the nuclei under
consideration. Phase portraits of the high-energy excited states peak
along the line which coincides with a classical trajectory.
Lightest Kaonic Nuclear Clusters
Roman Ya. Kezerashvili1,2, Shalva M. Tsiklauri3, N. Takibayev4
1)
Physics Department, The City University of New York, Brooklyn,
NY 11201, USA; 2) The Graduate School and University Center, New
York, NY 10016, USA; 3) Borough of Manhattan Community College,
New York, NY 10007, USA; 4) Al-Farabi Kazakh National University,
480078, Almaty, Kazakhstan
We present our study of kaonic three-body KNN, KKN and
KKK and four-body KNNN, and KKNN clusters within the
framework of a potential model using the method of hyperspherical
functions in momentum representation. To perform a numerical
calculations for the bound state energy of the light kaonic system, we
use a set of different potentials for the nucleon-nucleon and KN
interactions, as well as for the kaon-kaon interaction. The
calculations show that a quasibound state energy is not sensitive to
the NN interaction, and it shows very strong dependence on the KN
potential. We also compare our results with those obtained using
different theoretical approaches.
The theoretical discrepancies in the binding energy and width for the
lightest kaonic system related to the different NN and KN
interactions are addressed.
Phantom compact and extended objects in astrophysics
V.Dzhunushaliev, A.Makhmudov, A.Urasalina
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
We investigate localized and extended objects for gravitating,
self-interacting phantom fields. This study covers phantom boson
stars, phantom cosmic strings, phantom domain walls and phantom
traversable wormholes. These four systems are solved numerically
and we try to draw out general, interesting features in each case. In
each of the four systems we find regions of the parameters where
there is a balancing between the tendency of gravity to collapse the
system and the tendency of the phantom fields to disperse the
system.
Fractal - geometric description of the "distance - speed"
chart for antigravitating galaxies
Z.ZH. Zhanabaev, S.A. Khokhlov, A.T. Agishev*
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Kazakhstan, Almaty; *Email: aldiyar.agishev@gmail.com
Current astrophysical observations demonstrate expansion of the
universe. It can be considered as anti-gravity effect, which is
observed as "Scatter" of galaxies from each other with increasing
acceleration. This effect has been described in detail in a number of
papers, such as [1,2]. Physical nature of antigravity is intensively
studied by using the concept of "dark energy." On the other hand the
cosmological laws have long studied with fractal theory [3].
The fractal theory suggests an independent choice of minimal
measurement scale of measures on values of the determined
measures. Geometric measures in theory of gravity must depend on
spatial distribution of matter and relevant minimum geometric scale.
For this purpose, we can choose a typical distance R * and use the
nonlinear equation of fractal measures [4].
∗
(|
|)
(1)
where ∗ is radius of zero gravity, 𝛾
is
the
difference
between
topological and fractal dimensions
of matter distribution, is distance
from the observer,
is the
minimum deviation from R.
Positive speed values can be
found from (1) as
⁄
⁄
and
negative values from the Kramers – Kronig relations as
Figure 1 – Diagram "distance - speed" for the local group, 𝛾
= 0.194, ∗ = 0.89 Mpc.
∗
(2)
where
is real part of
and
is imaginary part of
. Absolute values of the velocities as [km s-1] we can find via
the Hubble constant: V = Vi * Hx * R, where Hx = 72 [km s-1 Mpc-1]
(Fig.1.)
The present theory can be considered as a scale – invariant
approach. So, via this theory, we have obtained the same results
correctly describing observations of another clusters.
In this paper we propose a new idea for the description the
behavior of a physical quantity near its critical value in the form of
non-linear fractal measures. As a critical distance from the viewpoint
we have adopted sizes of the galaxies groups and distance from the
zero gravity barycenter’s. This approach to the problems of
cosmology is different from other modern research that it`s the
simplest way for realization of the basic idea of the general theory of
relativity, which is the relationship of space structure with
distribution of matter.
References
[1] I. D. Karachentsev, O. G. Kashibadze, D. I. Makarov, and R.
B. Tully, The Hubble flow around the Local Group // MNRAS
(2009) Vol. 393, 1265-1274.
[2] A. D. Chernin et al., Dark energy domination in the
Virgocentric flow // A&A Vol. 520, A104 (2010).
[3] Baryshev Y., Teerikorpi P., “Discovery of Cosmic Fractals”
– World Scientific Press (2002).
[4] Z. Zhanabayev, S. Khokhlov, Non-linear geometric model of
the structure of the ensemble antigravitating galaxies, Vestnik
KazNU, seriya Fizicheskaya, 2015.
Calculation of neutron resonances parameters of
scattering by system of two heavy nuclei
V.O.Kurmangalieva, D.M.Nasirova, N. Zh.Takibayev
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University
*Abai Kazakh National Pedagogical University
Neutron scattering processes in two heavy nuclei system belong
to the class of quantum-mechanical problems, which are becoming
more and more interesting. This interest is connected not only with
explanation of nuclear interactions details, but also a manifestation of
extraordinary events, the inherent problems of three or more bodies.
The examples of this are Thomas [1] and Efimov [2] effects, which
describe the "fall of particles to the center" and "increase in the
number of bound states" in the three-particle systems. New
developments in three-particle systems have been identified,
concerning "movement of Efimov levels to threshold or from
threshold" when you change interaction forces, while the main ("not
Efimov") levels are moving in the opposite direction [3]. This
phenomenon has been used in experiments to identify the Efimov
levels [4]. These effects are amazing and unusual features of
quantum problem of three (and more) interacting bodies, which have
been confirmed in a number of unique and subtle experiments [4].
Two-particle processes of neutron scattering on a system of two
heavy nuclei were considered in this paper. The resonance
amplification mechanism of interaction between the heavy nuclei
was investigated. The problem of neutrons scattering at crystal
structures, in which nuclei are fixed in the crystal lattice was also
considered. The use of crystal lattice allows get nucleus "heavier" as
well as in Messbauera effect. Two-body interaction of neutron with
nucleus was taken in the Breit-Wigner form, which allows the use of
analytical expressions for two-enforcement amplitudes of neutron
scattering at the nucleus. Calculations have shown that two-particle
amplitudes have a resonant dependence not only on energy but also
on the distance between the nuclei lattice.Calculations of threeparticle type resonances were conducted for 103Ag, 52Cr, 51V, 157Gd
and other nuclei.
References:
[1] Landau L.D., Lifshic E.M. «Kvantovaja mehanika», Nauka,
M., 1989
[2] Efimov V., Nucl. Phys. A, V 210, 157, 1973
[3] Pen’kov F., Takibayev N.Zh., Physics of Atomic Nuclei, V57,
1300-1308, 1994
[4] The book of abstracts, the 19th International Conference on
Few-Body Problems in Physics, Bonn, Germany 2009
Phonon-nuclear interactions in the crystalline structures
of neutron stars and white dwarfs
Zh. Omar, N. Takibayev, V. Kurmangalieva
al-Farabi Kazakh National University; jadyra-07@mail.ru
Visible compact stars such as white dwarfs and neutron stars, are
of great interest to researchers due to an extremely high density and
unusual reactions and processes that take place in the stellar matter.
Usually assume that the matter in the center of white dwarf has a
crystalline structure formed with bare nuclei, which loaded into
electron Fermi-liquid [1]. The neutron stars have more huge density
therefore the crystalline structures are formed already at envelopes of
these stars. We investigated the interactions that can happen in the
crystalline structures, particularly between phonons in the crystal and
Fermi-electrons and nuclei [2].
It is remarkable that photons can create a group of electron-hole
pairs near Fermi energy surface and lead to the excitation of nuclei.
In this case, the nonlinear interactions become very important. Our
estimations and calculations demonstrated the dependence of the
velocity of processes from the element composition of stellar matter.
References:
[1] S. L. Shapiro., S. A. Tyukolskï, "Black holes, white dwarfs
and neutron Star", 1985
[2] Brandt N.B., Kulbaçhinski V.A., "Quasiparticles in condensed
matter physics".
Reactions of Li and Be isotopes with neutrons
Duisenbay A.D., Takibayev N.Zh., Kurmangalyeva V.O.
Faculty of Physics and Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National
University, Al-Farabi ave. 71, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan
All light nuclei have several isotopes. They are stable and
radioactive. The isotopes have their own properties and
characteristics.
Lithium is an alkaline metal. Nowadays lithium has nine isotopes
and two excited isomer states of 10m1Li − 10m2Li nuclides. There are
two stable isotopes - 6Li and 7Li. 6Li is used in thermonuclear
energetics. The capture section (σ) of thermal neutrons by lithium
isotopes is different: 6Li 945 barn, 7Li 0,033 barn [1]. The use of
lithium in technics is important.
Neutrons induce some nuclear reactions which are important in
divisions of high nuclei, also in formation of radioactive isotopes.
The main property of such reactions with neutrons is a growth by
parabolic law of reaction section while the energy of neutrons
decreases. Thus, many ordinary nuclear reactors operate with
neutrons which are in a thermal equilibrium with environment [2].
Neutrons participate in all interactions of elementary particles. They
are strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational [3].
Reactions of Li and Be isotopes with neutrons in nuclear reactors
were studied theoretically and reactions energies were calculated.
The reactions, which has sufficient energies can be in nuclear
reactors. For instance,
3
H + 42He + 4,782 MeV
6
Li
+
n
→
{
0
3
7
3Li + γ + 7,249 MeV
The passage of such reactions and sufficient energies are very
important in nuclear energetic, because almost all reactions in
nuclear reactors are important in energy production.
References:
[1] www.wikipedia.org
[2] Bartolimey G.G., Baibakov V.D., Alhutov M.C., Bat’ G.A.
Principles of theories and methods of calculations of nuclear energetic
reactors. Moscow: Poweratompubl., 1982. — p. 512.
[3] K.N.Muhin”E[perimental nuclear physics”t.1,p.1.,p.347–
349.
The erez-rosen solution versus the hartle-thorne solution
Sh.S.Suleimanova, K.A.Boshkayev, B.Zhami, Zh.A.Kalymova
Faculty of Physics and Technology, Al-Farabi Kazakh National
University, Almaty
An exact solution that describes exterior field of a static object
with the quadrupole moment has been obtained by Erez and Rosen
(ER) in 1959 using Weyl method [1]. The ER solution reduces to the
Schwarzschild solution for vanishing quadrupole parameter 𝑞 → 0.
The properties of gravitational field in ER spacetime have been
investigated in Ref. [2]. As a result, it shows new characteristics
complementing effects observed for the Schwarzschild spacetime [3,
4].
On the other hand, there exists an approximate solution for
slowly rotating, slightly deformed objects so-called Hartle-Thorne
(HT) solution [5]. Unlike most of the exact solutions the approximate
HT solution possesses its internal counterpart, which makes it
practical in astrophysical context. The solution has been determined
up to the second order terms of the body’s angular velocity i.e. its
accuracy is valid up to the first order terms in the quadrupole
moment Q and second order in the angular momentum J.
The main purpose of this work is to show the relationship
between the ER and the HT solutions for the vanishing angular
momentum J=0. Indeed, the first attempt in this direction has been
made in Ref. [3], where the ER solution has been subjected to the
Zipoy-Voorhees transformations 𝑗
+ 𝜎𝑞, where 𝑗 is the ZipoyVoorhees parameter and 𝜎 is a real number. Since the ER is the exact
solution it has been expanded up to the first order terms in the
quadrupole parameter. Afterwards, by setting 𝜎
the coordinate
transformations from the ER to HT solutions have been obtained
4
with algebraic relations 𝑀𝐻𝑇 𝑀𝐸
𝑞 , 𝑄 5 𝑀3 𝑞, where 𝑀 is
the mass of the central object.
However in this work we found these relations without setting
𝜎
. Instead, we directly calculated its value from the metric
functions by means of method of undetermined coefficients. Thus,
our results are fully in agreement with the well-known ones and can
be considered as an alternative approach.
References:
[1] Erez, G.and Rosen, N. The gravitational ﬁeld of a particle
possessing a quadrupole moment // Bull. Res. Counc. Israel. –
1959. – Vol. 8F. – P. 47.
[2] Quevedo H., Parkes L. Geodesies in the Erez-Rosen spacetime // General Relativity and Gravitation. – 1989. –Vol. 21,
№10. –P. 1047-1072.
[3] Mashhoon B., Theiss D.S. Relativistic Lunar theory // Nuovo
Cimento Soc. Ital. Fis.– 1991. – Vol. 106 B. – P. 545.
[4] Donato Bini D., Crosta M., de Felice F., Geralico A.,
Vecchiato A. The Erez–Rosen metric and the role of the
quadrupole on light propagation // Class. Quantum Grav. – 2013.
– Vol. 30. – P. 045009.
[5] Hartle J.B., Thorne K.S. Slowly Rotating Relativistic Stars.
II. Models for Neutron Stars and Supermassive Stars //
Astrophys. J. – 1968. – Vol. 153. – P. 807.
Application of geometrothermodynamics in the investigation
of the ideal gas
M. Abishev1, A. Malybayev1, H. Quevedo2
Physical-Technical Faculty, Al-Farabi Kazakh National
University, Al Farabi av. 71, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan
2
Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Autonomous University of
Mexico, AP 70543, Mexico, DF 04510, Mexico
1
In this work, we investigate the geometric properties of the
equilibrium space of the ideal gas. We show that the thermodynamic
properties of the ideal gas can be investigated by using the formalism
of geometrothermodynamics (GTD) which establishes a connection
between the geometric properties of the equilibrium space of a
thermodynamic system and its physical properties.
In GTD, the thermodynamic variables are used as coordinates for
the thermodynamic phase space 𝒯, which in this case is 5dimensional with coordinates S, U, V, T, P . In addition, the
equilibrium space ℰ is a 2-dimensional subspace of 𝒯. Then, we
introduce the so-called fundamental Gibbs 1-form Θ. Moreover, we
introduce a metric G in the thermodynamic phase space 𝒯, which
depends on all the coordinates of 𝒯, i.e. G G S, U, V, T, P , where S
is the entropy, U the internal energy, V the volume, T the
temperature and P is the pressure.
The fundamental Gibbs 1-form Θ and the metric G are invariant
with respect to Legendre transformations. For the equilibrium
subspace ℰ we choose the variables U and V as coordinates. Then, we
can specify a fundamental equation as 𝑆 S U, V . The projection of
the metric G on ℰ induces a metric g on ℰ. The metric of the
equilibrium space of a thermodynamic system with two degrees of
freedom U, V сan be written as:
gS
∂S 2k
(U ∂U)
∂2 S
∂S 2k
∂2 S
2
dU
+(V
)
dV 2
2
∂U
∂V
∂V2
∂S 2k
∂2 S
(V )
dUdV
]
∂V
∂U ∂V
∂S 2k
+ [(U ∂U)
+
(1)
In the case of an ideal gas, the fundamental equation in the
entropy representation can be expressed as:
S U, V
U
V
0
0
S0 + Nk B cV ln (U ) + Nk B ln (V )
(2)
By substituting (2) into (1) we obtain the simple metric:
gS
Nk B
2k 2
[cV2k
2
(
∂U 2
∂V 2
+
)
(
)]
U2
V2
The curvature of this metric is identically zero. We interpret the
absence of curvature as the absence of thermodynamic interaction.
One of the goals of GTD is to interpret the curvature of the space of
equilibrium states as a measure of thermodynamic interaction. This
goal has been reached here in the case of the ideal gas.
References:
[1] H. Quevedo, M.N. Quevedo, Fundamentals of
Geometrothermodynamics, Electr. J. Theor. Phys., 1(2011).
arXiv:1111.5056 [math-ph].
[2] H. Quevedo, Geometrothermodynamics,
Mathematical Physics 48, 013506 (2007).
Journal
of